The English word comes from the Old English sawol, meaning the "spiritual and emotional part of a person."
In Kabbalah, the spiritual and emotional part of the person is related to the sephiroth Hod (emotion), Netzach (mind), Tiphereth (will; Human Soul), and Geburah (consciousness; Divine Soul).
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the word soul is usually related to the Sanskrit word Atman, defined as "self.
The teaching of the Buddha explains that there is no "soul" in the sense of a permanent, eternally existing element beyond the body that defines a person.
In reality, the common person does not have a "soul" yet; they have the essence or seed of the soul, which must be grown through the "second birth." As Jesus explained, "With patience ye shall possess thy souls." (Luke 21) Thus, the development of the soul is the mere beginning of the path to full development.
The term "soul" should not be confused with "spirit," which refers to a higher aspect of the Innermost (Atman; Chesed).
(Sanskrit) soul; self; person; mind; heart; living entity